A genome-wide association study of plasma concentrations of warfarin enantiomers and metabolites in sub-Saharan black-African patients.

Asiimwe, Innocent G ORCID: 0000-0002-1196-1822, Blockman, Marc, Cohen, Karen, Cupido, Clint, Hutchinson, Claire, Jacobson, Barry, Lamorde, Mohammed, Morgan, Jennie, Mouton, Johannes P, Nakagaayi, Doreen
et al (show 8 more authors) (2022) A genome-wide association study of plasma concentrations of warfarin enantiomers and metabolites in sub-Saharan black-African patients. Frontiers in pharmacology, 13. p. 967082.

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Diversity in pharmacogenomic studies is poor, especially in relation to the inclusion of black African patients. Lack of funding and difficulties in recruitment, together with the requirement for large sample sizes because of the extensive genetic diversity in Africa, are amongst the factors which have hampered pharmacogenomic studies in Africa. Warfarin is widely used in sub-Saharan Africa, but as in other populations, dosing is highly variable due to genetic and non-genetic factors. In order to identify genetic factors determining warfarin response variability, we have conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of plasma concentrations of warfarin enantiomers/metabolites in sub-Saharan black-Africans. This overcomes the issue of non-adherence and may have greater sensitivity at genome-wide level, to identify pharmacokinetic gene variants than focusing on mean weekly dose, the usual end-point used in previous studies. Participants recruited at 12 outpatient sites in Uganda and South Africa on stable warfarin dose were genotyped using the Illumina Infinium H3Africa Consortium Array v2. Imputation was conducted using the 1,000 Genomes Project phase III reference panel. Warfarin/metabolite plasma concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Multivariable linear regression was undertaken, with adjustment made for five non-genetic covariates and ten principal components of genetic ancestry. After quality control procedures, 548 participants and 17,268,054 SNPs were retained. <i>CYP2C9*8</i>, <i>CYP2C9*9</i>, <i>CYP2C9*11</i>, and the <i>CYP2C</i> cluster SNP rs12777823 passed the Bonferroni-adjusted replication significance threshold (<i>p</i> < 3.21E-04) for warfarin/metabolite ratios. In an exploratory GWAS analysis, 373 unique SNPs in 13 genes, including <i>CYP2C9*8</i>, passed the Bonferroni-adjusted genome-wide significance threshold (<i>p</i> < 3.846E-9), with 325 (87%, all located on chromosome 10) SNPs being associated with the S-warfarin/R-warfarin outcome (top SNP rs11188082, <i>CYP2C19</i> intron variant, <i>p</i> = 1.55E-17). Approximately 69% of these SNPs were in linkage disequilibrium (<i>r</i> <sup>2</sup> > 0.8) with <i>CYP2C9*8</i> (<i>n</i> = 216) and rs12777823 (<i>n</i> = 8). Using a pharmacokinetic approach, we have shown that variants other than <i>CYP2C9*2</i> and <i>CYP2C9</i>*3 are more important in sub-Saharan black-Africans, mainly due to the allele frequencies. In exploratory work, we conducted the first warfarin pharmacokinetics-related GWAS in sub-Saharan Africans and identified novel SNPs that will require external replication and functional characterization before they can be considered for inclusion in warfarin dosing algorithms.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: black-African, genome-wide association study, personalized medicine, pharmacokinetics, warfarin
Divisions: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Systems, Molecular and Integrative Biology
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 14 Oct 2022 10:20
Last Modified: 18 Jan 2023 20:36
DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2022.967082
Open Access URL: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar...
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URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3165464