Aetiology and Potential Animal Exposure in Central Nervous System Infections in Vietnam

Brindle, Hannah E ORCID: 0000-0003-1684-5801, Nadjm, Behzad, Choisy, Marc, Christley, Rob, Griffiths, Michael, Baker, Stephen, Bryant, Juliet E, Campbell, James I, Nguyen, Van Vinh Chau, Nguyen, Thi Ngoc Diep
et al (show 18 more authors) (2022) Aetiology and Potential Animal Exposure in Central Nervous System Infections in Vietnam. ECOHEALTH, 19 (4). pp. 463-474.

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An estimated 73% of emerging infections are zoonotic in origin, with animal contact and encroachment on their habitats increasing the risk of spill-over events. In Vietnam, close exposure to a wide range of animals and animal products can lead to acquisition of zoonotic pathogens, a number of which cause central nervous system (CNS) infections. However, studies show the aetiology of CNS infections remains unknown in around half of cases. We used samples and data from hospitalised patients with CNS infections, enrolled into the Vietnam Initiative on Zoonotic Infections multicentre study, to determine the association between aetiology and animal contact including those in whom the cause was unknown. Among 933 patients, a pathogen or an antibody response to it was identified in 291 (31.2%, 95% CI 28.3-34.3%). The most common pathogens were Streptococcus suis (n = 91 (9.8%, 8.0-11.9%)) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) (n = 72 (7.7%, 6.1-9.7%)). Commonly reported animal contact included keeping, raising or handling (n = 364 (39.0%, 35.9-42.2%)) and handling, cooking or consuming raw meat, blood or viscera in the 2 weeks prior to symptom onset (n = 371 (39.8%, 36.6-43.0%)), with the latter most commonly from pigs (n = 343 (36.9%, 33.8-40.1%). There was no association between an unknown aetiology and exposure to animals in a multivariate logistic regression. Further testing for unknown or undetected pathogens may increase diagnostic yield, however, given the high proportion of zoonotic pathogens and the presence of risk factors, increasing public awareness about zoonoses and preventive measures can be considered.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Zoonosis, Central nervous system infections, Vietnam, Disease of unknown aetiology, Emerging infections
Divisions: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 03 Nov 2022 10:09
Last Modified: 15 Mar 2023 05:22
DOI: 10.1007/s10393-022-01611-w
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