Exposure Contrasts of Pregnant Women during the Household Air Pollution Intervention Network Randomized Controlled Trial.

Johnson, Michael ORCID: 0000-0002-4886-1534, Pillarisetti, Ajay ORCID: 0000-0003-0518-2934, Piedrahita, Ricardo ORCID: 0000-0002-6658-2627, Balakrishnan, Kalpana ORCID: 0000-0002-5905-1801, Peel, Jennifer L, Steenland, Kyle, Underhill, Lindsay J, Rosa, Ghislaine, Kirby, Miles A ORCID: 0000-0003-3468-9793, Díaz-Artiga, Anaité ORCID: 0000-0002-2508-8710
et al (show 17 more authors) (2022) Exposure Contrasts of Pregnant Women during the Household Air Pollution Intervention Network Randomized Controlled Trial. Environmental health perspectives, 130 (9). 97005-.

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<h4>Background</h4>Exposure to PM2.5 arising from solid fuel combustion is estimated to result in ∼2.3 million premature deaths and 91 million lost disability-adjusted life years annually. Interventions attempting to mitigate this burden have had limited success in reducing exposures to levels thought to provide substantive health benefits.<h4>Objectives</h4>This paper reports exposure reductions achieved by a liquified petroleum gas (LPG) stove and fuel intervention for pregnant mothers in the Household Air Pollution Intervention Network (HAPIN) randomized controlled trial.<h4>Methods</h4>The HAPIN trial included 3,195 households primarily using biomass for cooking in Guatemala, India, Peru, and Rwanda. Twenty-four-hour exposures to PM2.5, carbon monoxide (CO), and black carbon (BC) were measured for pregnant women once before randomization into control (n=1,605) and LPG (n=1,590) arms and twice thereafter (aligned with trimester). Changes in exposure were estimated by directly comparing exposures between intervention and control arms and by using linear mixed-effect models to estimate the impact of the intervention on exposure levels.<h4>Results</h4>Median postrandomization exposures of particulate matter (PM) with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5μm (PM2.5) in the intervention arm were lower by 66% at the first (71.5 vs. 24.1 μg/m3), and second follow-up visits (69.5 vs. 23.7 μg/m3) compared to controls. BC exposures were lower in the intervention arm by 72% (9.7 vs. 2.7 μg/m3) and 70% (9.6 vs. 2.8 μg/m3) at the first and second follow-up visits, respectively, and carbon monoxide exposure was 82% lower at both visits (1.1 vs. 0.2 ppm) in comparison with controls. Exposure reductions were consistent over time and were similar across research locations.<h4>Discussion</h4>Postintervention PM2.5 exposures in the intervention arm were at the lower end of what has been reported for LPG and other clean fuel interventions, with 69% of PM2.5 samples falling below the World Health Organization Annual Interim Target 1 of 35 μg/m3. This study indicates that an LPG intervention can reduce PM2.5 exposures to levels at or below WHO targets. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP10295.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: the Household Air Pollution Intervention Network (HAPIN) Trial Investigators, Humans, Carbon Monoxide, Petroleum, Air Pollution, Pregnancy, Pregnant Women, Female, Particulate Matter, Soot
Divisions: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Population Health
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 10 Feb 2023 17:21
Last Modified: 18 Mar 2024 03:26
DOI: 10.1289/ehp10295
Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP10295
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3168343