Towards real-time STEM simulations through targeted subsampling strategies

Robinson, Alex WW ORCID: 0000-0002-1901-2509, Wells, Jack, Nicholls, Daniel ORCID: 0000-0003-1677-701X, Moshtaghpour, Amirafshar ORCID: 0000-0002-6751-2698, Chi, Miaofang, Kirkland, Angus II and Browning, Nigel DD ORCID: 0000-0003-0491-251X
(2023) Towards real-time STEM simulations through targeted subsampling strategies. JOURNAL OF MICROSCOPY, 290 (1). pp. 53-66.

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Scanning transmission electron microscopy images can be complex to interpret on the atomic scale as the contrast is sensitive to multiple factors such as sample thickness, composition, defects and aberrations. Simulations are commonly used to validate or interpret real experimental images, but they come at a cost of either long computation times or specialist hardware such as graphics processing units. Recent works in compressive sensing for experimental STEM images have shown that it is possible to significantly reduce the amount of acquired signal and still recover the full image without significant loss of image quality, and therefore it is proposed here that similar methods can be applied to STEM simulations. In this paper, we demonstrate a method that can significantly increase the efficiency of STEM simulations through a targeted sampling strategy, along with a new approach to independently subsample each frozen phonon layer. We show the effectiveness of this method by simulating a SrTiO<sub>3</sub> grain boundary and monolayer 2H-MoS<sub>2</sub> containing a sulphur vacancy using the abTEM software. We also show how this method is not limited to only traditional multislice methods, but also increases the speed of the PRISM simulation method. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility for STEM simulations to seed the acquisition of real data, to potentially lead the way to self-driving (correcting) STEM.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: artificial intelligence, beam damage, compressive sensing, inpainting, stem simulation, subsampling
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 23 Feb 2023 16:11
Last Modified: 04 May 2023 04:47
DOI: 10.1111/jmi.13177
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