Monitoring glucose levels in urine using FTIR spectroscopy combined with univariate and multivariate statistical methods

Caixeta, Douglas Carvalho, Lima, Cassio ORCID: 0000-0002-9062-6298, Xu, Yun ORCID: 0000-0003-3228-5111, Guevara-Vega, Marco, Espindola, Foued Salmen, Goodacre, Royston ORCID: 0000-0003-2230-645X, Zezell, Denise Maria and Sabino-Silva, Robinson
(2023) Monitoring glucose levels in urine using FTIR spectroscopy combined with univariate and multivariate statistical methods. SPECTROCHIMICA ACTA PART A-MOLECULAR AND BIOMOLECULAR SPECTROSCOPY, 290. 122259-.

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The development of novel platforms for non-invasive continuous glucose monitoring applied in the screening and monitoring of diabetes is crucial to improve diabetes surveillance systems. Attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy of urine can be an alternative as a sustainable, label-free, fast, non-invasive, and highly sensitive analysis to detect changes in urine promoted by diabetes and insulin treatment. In this study, we used ATR-FTIR to evaluate the urinary components of non-diabetic (ND), diabetic (D), and diabetic insulin-treated (D + I) rats. As expected, insulin treatment was capable to revert changes in glycemia, 24-h urine collection volume, urine creatinine, urea, and glucose excretion promoted by diabetes. Several differences in the urine spectra of ND, D, and D + I were observed, with urea, creatinine, and glucose analytes being related to these changes. Principal components analysis (PCA) scores plots allowed for the discrimination of ND and D + I from D with an accuracy of ∼ 99 %. The PCA loadings associated with PC1 confirmed the importance of urea and glucose vibrational modes for this discrimination. Univariate analysis of second derivative spectra showed a high correlation (r: 0.865, p < 0.0001) between the height of 1074 cm-1 vibrational mode with urinary glucose concentration. In order to estimate the amount of glucose present in the infrared spectra from urine, multivariate curve resolution-alternating least square (MCR-ALS) was applied and a higher predicted concentration of glucose in the urine was observed with a correlation of 78.9 % compared to urinary glucose concentration assessed using enzyme assays. In summary, ATR-FTIR combined with univariate and multivariate chemometric analyses provides an innovative, non-invasive, and sustainable approach to diabetes surveillance.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Diabetes, ATR-FTIR, Urinary biomarkers, Chemometrics analysis
Divisions: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Systems, Molecular and Integrative Biology
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 06 Mar 2023 10:24
Last Modified: 17 Dec 2023 02:30
DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2022.122259
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