Infection, Transmission, Pathogenesis and Vaccine Development against <i>Mycoplasma gallisepticum</i>

Mugunthan, Susithra Priyadarshni, Kannan, Ganapathy, Chandra, Harish Mani and Paital, Biswaranjan
(2023) Infection, Transmission, Pathogenesis and Vaccine Development against <i>Mycoplasma gallisepticum</i>. VACCINES, 11 (2). 469-.

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<i>Mycoplasma</i> sp. comprises cell wall-less bacteria with reduced genome size and can infect mammals, reptiles, birds, and plants. Avian mycoplasmosis, particularly in chickens, is primarily caused by <i>Mycoplasma gallisepticum</i> (MG) and <i>Mycoplasma synoviae</i>. It causes infection and pathology mainly in the respiratory, reproductive, and musculoskeletal systems. MG is the most widely distributed pathogenic avian mycoplasma with a wide range of host susceptibility and virulence. MG is transmitted both by horizontal and vertical routes. MG infection induces innate, cellular, mucosal, and adaptive immune responses in the host. Macrophages aid in phagocytosis and clearance, and B and T cells play critical roles in the clearance and prevention of MG. The virulent factors of MG are adhesion proteins, lipoproteins, heat shock proteins, and antigenic variation proteins, all of which play pivotal roles in host cell entry and pathogenesis. Prevention of MG relies on farm and flock biosecurity, management strategies, early diagnosis, use of antimicrobials, and vaccination. This review summarizes the vital pathogenic mechanisms underlying MG infection and recapitulates the virulence factors of MG-host cell adhesion, antigenic variation, nutrient transport, and immune evasion. The review also highlights the limitations of current vaccines and the development of innovative future vaccines against MG.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Mycoplasma gallisepticum, virulence factors, cytoadhesion, immune evasion, vaccine development
Divisions: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 03 May 2023 13:38
Last Modified: 18 Oct 2023 13:06
DOI: 10.3390/vaccines11020469
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