Inguinal lymph node metastases from rectal adenocarcinoma: a systematic review

Wyatt, James ORCID: 0000-0002-6456-0723, Powell, Simon G ORCID: 0000-0002-5553-5286, Ahmed, Salma, Arthur, James, Altaf, Kiran, Ahmed, Shakil and Javed, Muhammad Ahsan
(2023) Inguinal lymph node metastases from rectal adenocarcinoma: a systematic review. TECHNIQUES IN COLOPROCTOLOGY, 27 (11). pp. 969-978.

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<h4>Purpose</h4>Inguinal lymph nodes are a rare but recognised site of metastasis in rectal adenocarcinoma. No guideline or consensus exists for the management of such cases. This review aims to provide a contemporary and comprehensive analysis of the published literature to aid clinical decision-making.<h4>Methods</h4>Systematic searches were performed using the PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE and Scopus and Cochrane CENTRAL Library databases from inception till December 2022. All studies reporting on the presentation, prognosis or management of patients with inguinal lymph node metastases (ILNM) were included. Pooled proportion meta-analyses were completed when possible and descriptive synthesis was utilised for the remaining outcomes. The Joanna Briggs Institute tool for case series was used to assess the risk of bias.<h4>Results</h4>Nineteen studies were eligible for inclusion, encompassing 18 case series and one population-based study using national registry data. A total of 487 patients were included in the primary studies. The prevalence of ILNM in rectal cancer is 0.36%. ILNM are associated with very low rectal tumours with a mean distance from the anal verge of 1.1 cm (95% CI 0.92-1.27). Invasion of the dentate line was found in 76% of cases (95% CI 59-93). In patients with isolated inguinal lymph node metastases, modern chemoradiotherapy regimens in combination with surgical excision of inguinal nodes are associated with 5-year overall survival rates of 53-78%.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In specific subsets of patients with ILNM, curative-intent treatment regimens are feasible, with oncological outcomes akin to those demonstrated in locally advanced rectal cancers.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Rectal cancer, Inguinal lymph nodes, Lymphadenectomy, Chemoradiotherapy, Survival
Divisions: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 01 Jun 2023 09:37
Last Modified: 30 Oct 2023 10:53
DOI: 10.1007/s10151-023-02826-x
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