Multi-Phase Sputtered TiO<sub>2</sub>-Induced Current-Voltage Distortion in Sb<sub>2</sub>Se<sub>3</sub> Solar Cells

Don, Christopher H ORCID: 0009-0009-5872-5614, Shalvey, Thomas P, Smiles, Matthew J, Thomas, Luke, Phillips, Laurie J ORCID: 0000-0001-5181-1565, Hobson, Theodore DC, Finch, Harry, Jones, Leanne AH, Swallow, Jack EN, Fleck, Nicole
et al (show 11 more authors) (2023) Multi-Phase Sputtered TiO<sub>2</sub>-Induced Current-Voltage Distortion in Sb<sub>2</sub>Se<sub>3</sub> Solar Cells. ADVANCED MATERIALS INTERFACES, 10 (20).

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<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Despite the recent success of CdS/Sb<jats:sub>2</jats:sub>Se<jats:sub>3</jats:sub> heterojunction devices, cadmium toxicity, parasitic absorption from the relatively narrow CdS band gap (2.4 eV) and multiple reports of inter‐diffusion at the interface forming Cd(S,Se) and Sb<jats:sub>2</jats:sub>(S,Se)<jats:sub>3</jats:sub> phases, present significant limitations to this device architecture. Among the options for alternative partner layers in antimony chalcogenide solar cells, the wide band gap, non‐toxic titanium dioxide (TiO<jats:sub>2</jats:sub>) has demonstrated the most promise. It is generally accepted that the anatase phase of the polymorphic TiO<jats:sub>2</jats:sub> is preferred, although there is currently an absence of analysis with regard to phase influence on device performance. This work reports approaches to distinguish between TiO<jats:sub>2</jats:sub> phases using both surface and bulk characterization methods. A device fabricated with a radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtered rutile‐TiO<jats:sub>2</jats:sub> window layer (FTO/TiO<jats:sub>2</jats:sub>/Sb<jats:sub>2</jats:sub>Se<jats:sub>3</jats:sub>/P3HT/Au) achieved an efficiency of 6.88% and near‐record short–circuit current density (<jats:italic>J<jats:sub>sc</jats:sub></jats:italic>) of 32.44 mA cm<jats:sup>−2</jats:sup>, which is comparable to established solution based TiO<jats:sub>2</jats:sub> fabrication methods that produced a highly anatase‐TiO<jats:sub>2</jats:sub> partner layer and a 6.91% efficiency device. The sputtered method introduces reproducibility challenges via the enhancement of interfacial charge barriers in multi‐phase TiO<jats:sub>2</jats:sub> films with a rutile surface and anatase bulk. This is shown to introduce severe S‐shaped current–voltage (J–V) distortion and a drastic fill–factor (<jats:italic>FF</jats:italic>) reduction in these devices.</jats:p>

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: anatase, barrier, photovoltaics, rutile, Sb2Se3, S-shape, TiO2
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Engineering > School of Physical Sciences
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 21 Jun 2023 08:14
Last Modified: 23 Oct 2023 14:59
DOI: 10.1002/admi.202300238
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