Experimental evidence to understand mechanical causes of retinal detachment following blunt trauma.

Chen, Duo, Liu, Xiaoyu, Sun, Xiaona, Liu, Yanwu, Geng, Xiaoqi, Huo, Hongqiang, Tang, Min, Tang, Zhili, Dong, Ying, Wang, Jinghui
et al (show 5 more authors) (2023) Experimental evidence to understand mechanical causes of retinal detachment following blunt trauma. Exp Eye Res, 233. p. 109552.

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PURPOSE: This study aimed to perform an in vitro experiment to simulate retinal detachment caused by blunt impact, and provide experimental evidence to understand mechanical causes of traumatic retinal detachment. METHODS: The experiment was conducted on twenty-two fresh porcine eyes using a bespoke pendulum testing device at two energy levels (0.1J for low energy and 1.0J for high energy). We examined dynamic forces and mechanical responses to the impact, including global deformations, intraocular pressure changes and the energy absorption. Another set of twenty-two eyes underwent pathological examination immediately after being subjected to blunt impact. Twelve additional intact eyes were examined as controls. All pathological sections were scored to indicate whether retinal detachment had occurred. RESULTS: A dynamic variation in intraocular pressure was detected following impact and exhibited an approximate sinusoidal oscillation-attenuation profile. The peaks of impact force were 12.9 ± 1.9 N at low-energy level and 34.8 ± 9.8 N at high-energy level, showing a significant difference (p < 0.001). The positive and negative peaks of intraocular pressure were 149.4 ± 18.9 kPa and -10.9 ± 7.2 kPa at low-energy level, and 274.5 ± 55.2 kPa and -35.7 ± 23.7 kPa at high-energy level, showing significant differences (p < 0.001 for both levels). Retinal detachments were observed in damaged eyes while few detachments were found in control eyes. The occurrence rate of retinal detachment differed significantly (p < 0.05) between the high- and low-energy impact groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided experimental evidence that shockwaves produced by blunt trauma break the force equilibrium and lead to the oscillation and negative pressure, which mainly contribute to traumatic retinal detachment.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Blunt trauma, Eye, Retinal detachment
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 28 Jun 2023 08:57
Last Modified: 16 Aug 2023 22:22
DOI: 10.1016/j.exer.2023.109552
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3171338