Long COVID: pathophysiological factors and abnormalities of coagulation

Turner, Simone, Khan, M Asad, Putrino, David, Woodcock, Ashley, Kell, Douglas B ORCID: 0000-0001-5838-7963 and Pretorius, Etheresia
(2023) Long COVID: pathophysiological factors and abnormalities of coagulation. TRENDS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM, 34 (6). pp. 321-344.

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Acute COVID-19 infection is followed by prolonged symptoms in approximately one in ten cases: known as Long COVID. The disease affects ~65 million individuals worldwide. Many pathophysiological processes appear to underlie Long COVID, including viral factors (persistence, reactivation, and bacteriophagic action of SARS CoV-2); host factors (chronic inflammation, metabolic and endocrine dysregulation, immune dysregulation, and autoimmunity); and downstream impacts (tissue damage from the initial infection, tissue hypoxia, host dysbiosis, and autonomic nervous system dysfunction). These mechanisms culminate in the long-term persistence of the disorder characterized by a thrombotic endothelialitis, endothelial inflammation, hyperactivated platelets, and fibrinaloid microclots. These abnormalities of blood vessels and coagulation affect every organ system and represent a unifying pathway for the various symptoms of Long COVID.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Humans, Thrombosis, Inflammation, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
Divisions: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Systems, Molecular and Integrative Biology
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 02 Oct 2023 09:31
Last Modified: 02 Oct 2023 09:38
DOI: 10.1016/j.tem.2023.03.002
Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tem.2023.03.002
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3173277