Molecular pharmacodynamics of meropenem for nosocomial pneumonia caused by <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>.

Farrington, Nicola ORCID: 0000-0003-2300-9430, Dubey, Vineet, Johnson, Adam, Horner, Iona, Stevenson, Adam, Unsworth, Jennifer, Jimenez-Valverde, Ana ORCID: 0000-0003-4284-5629, Schwartz, Julie, Das, Shampa ORCID: 0000-0002-2540-4816, Hope, William ORCID: 0000-0001-6187-878X
et al (show 1 more authors) (2024) Molecular pharmacodynamics of meropenem for nosocomial pneumonia caused by <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>. mBio, 15 (2). e0316523-.

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Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, commonly caused by <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>. Meropenem is a commonly used therapeutic agent, although emergent resistance occurs during treatment. We used a rabbit HAP infection model to assess the bacterial kill and resistance pharmacodynamics of meropenem. Meropenem 5 mg/kg administered subcutaneously (s.c.) q8h (±amikacin 3.33-5 mg/kg q8h administered intravenously[i.v.]) or meropenem 30 mg/kg s.c. q8h regimens were assessed in a rabbit lung infection model infected with <i>P. aeruginosa</i>, with bacterial quantification and phenotypic/genotypic characterization of emergent resistant isolates. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic output was fitted to a mathematical model, and human-like regimens were simulated to predict outcomes in a clinical context. Increasing meropenem monotherapy demonstrated a dose-response effect to bacterial kill and an inverted U relationship with emergent resistance. The addition of amikacin to meropenem suppressed the emergence of resistance. A network of porin loss, efflux upregulation, and increased expression of AmpC was identified as the mechanism of this emergent resistance. A bridging simulation using human pharmacokinetics identified meropenem 2 g i.v. q8h as the licensed clinical regimen most likely to suppress resistance. We demonstrate an innovative experimental platform to phenotypically and genotypically characterize bacterial emergent resistance pharmacodynamics in HAP. For meropenem, we have demonstrated the risk of resistance emergence during therapy and identified two mitigating strategies: (i) regimen intensification and (ii) use of combination therapy. This platform will allow pre-clinical assessment of emergent resistance risk during treatment of HAP for other antimicrobials, to allow construction of clinical regimens that mitigate this risk.IMPORTANCEThe emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) during antimicrobial treatment for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is a well-documented problem (particularly in pneumonia caused by <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i>) that contributes to the wider global antimicrobial resistance crisis. During drug development, regimens are typically determined by their sufficiency to achieve bactericidal effect. Prevention of the emergence of resistance pharmacodynamics is usually not characterized or used to determine the regimen. The innovative experimental platform described here allows characterization of the emergence of AMR during the treatment of HAP and the development of strategies to mitigate this. We have demonstrated this specifically for meropenem-a broad-spectrum antibiotic commonly used to treat HAP. We have characterized the antimicrobial resistance pharmacodynamics of meropenem when used to treat HAP, caused by initially meropenem-susceptible <i>P. aeruginosa</i>, phenotypically and genotypically. We have also shown that intensifying the regimen and using combination therapy are both strategies that can both treat HAP and suppress the emergence of resistance.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Animals, Rabbits, Humans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas Infections, Cross Infection, Amikacin, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Microbial Sensitivity Tests, Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia, Meropenem
Divisions: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Systems, Molecular and Integrative Biology
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 22 Jan 2024 16:42
Last Modified: 01 Mar 2024 13:53
DOI: 10.1128/mbio.03165-23
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