An investigation of the presence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae in raw and cooked kibble diets for dogs in the United Kingdom

Morgan, Genever ORCID: 0000-0002-3658-5499, Pinchbeck, Gina, Taymaz, Eda, Chattaway, Marie Anne, Schmidt, Vanessa and Williams, Nicola
(2024) An investigation of the presence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae in raw and cooked kibble diets for dogs in the United Kingdom. Frontiers in Microbiology, 14. 1301841-.

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<jats:p>Raw meat diets (RMD) for dogs are an increasingly popular alternative pet food choice, however studies worldwide have demonstrated them to be contaminated with zoonotic and antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria, including bacteria resistant to critically important antibiotics. Despite this, few data exist surrounding the presence of these bacteria in RMD in the United Kingdom. The present study aimed to identify the most commonly selected RMD and non-raw diets (NRMD) by United Kingdom dog owners. Additionally, it investigated the presence of AMR-<jats:italic>Enterobacteriaceae</jats:italic> in samples of pre-prepared RMD and cooked commercial kibble dog foods. An online survey investigating diet preferences of United Kingdom dog owners was open for 6 weeks between February–March 2020. From this, the top 10 brands of pre-prepared raw and cooked kibble diets were ascertained and 134 samples purchased (110 RMD, 24 kibble) and subjected to microbiological testing. Bacterial enumeration of <jats:italic>E. coli</jats:italic> and other <jats:italic>Enterobacteriaceae</jats:italic> was undertaken, and the presence of <jats:italic>Salmonella</jats:italic> spp. and AMR-<jats:italic>E. coli</jats:italic> within samples determined. Whole genome sequencing was undertaken on <jats:italic>Salmonella</jats:italic> spp. and third-generation cephalosporin-resistant 3GCR-<jats:italic>E. coli</jats:italic> isolates. Pre-prepared RMD was most commonly selected by dog owners who fed RMD, and cooked commercial complete dry food was most frequently fed by owners who fed NRMD. Damaged and leaking packaging was observed in samples of RMD, alongside variability in information provided surrounding product traceability. Counts of <jats:italic>E. coli</jats:italic> and other <jats:italic>Enterobacteriaceae</jats:italic> exceeding &amp;gt;5,000 CFU/g were identified in samples of RMD. AMR-, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and 3GCR-<jats:italic>E. coli</jats:italic> was isolated from 39, 14 and 16% of RMD samples, respectively. Multiple antimicrobial resistance genes were identified in 3GCR-<jats:italic>E. coli</jats:italic> isolates. Of the ESBL encoding genes, <jats:italic>bla</jats:italic><jats:sub>CTX-M-15</jats:sub> was most commonly identified. <jats:italic>S. enterica</jats:italic> was isolated from 5% of RMD samples. No <jats:italic>Enterobacteriaceae</jats:italic> were isolated from any of the cooked kibble samples. The present study suggests that pre-prepared RMD available for dogs in the United Kingdom can be contaminated with zoonotic and AMR-<jats:italic>Enterobacteriaceae</jats:italic>. RMDs, therefore, are potentially an important One Health concern. Veterinary and medical professionals, pet food retailers and pet owners should be aware of these risks; and stringent hygiene measures should be practiced if owners choose to feed RMD.</jats:p>

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: E. coli, Enterobacteriaceae, antimicrobial resistance, dog, food, pet, raw
Divisions: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 24 Jan 2024 12:01
Last Modified: 24 Jan 2024 12:47
DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2023.1301841
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