Automated dairy cattle lameness detection utilizing the power of artificial intelligence; current status quo and future research opportunities.



Siachos, Nektarios ORCID: 0000-0001-7670-4950, Neary, Joseph M ORCID: 0000-0001-8438-2234, Smith, Robert F ORCID: 0000-0003-0944-310X and Oikonomou, Georgios ORCID: 0000-0002-4451-4199
(2024) Automated dairy cattle lameness detection utilizing the power of artificial intelligence; current status quo and future research opportunities. Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997), 304. 106091-.

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Abstract

Lameness represents a major welfare and health problem for the dairy industry across all farming systems. Visual mobility scoring, although very useful, is labour-intensive and physically demanding, especially in large dairies, often leading to inconsistencies and inadequate uptake of the practice. Technological and computational advancements of artificial intelligence (AI) have led to the development of numerous automated solutions for livestock monitoring. The objective of this study was to review the automated systems using AI algorithms for lameness detection developed to-date. These systems rely on gait analysis using accelerometers, weighing platforms, acoustic analysis, radar sensors and computer vision technology. The lameness features of interest, the AI techniques used to process the data as well as the ground truth of lameness selected in each case are described. Measures of accuracy regarding correct classification of cows as lame or non-lame varied with most systems being able to classify cows with adequate reliability. Most studies used visual mobility scoring as the ground truth for comparison with only a few studies using the presence of specific foot pathologies. Given the capabilities of AI, and the benefits of early treatment of lameness, longitudinal studies to identify gait abnormalities using automated scores related to the early developmental stages of different foot pathologies are required. Farm-specific optimal thresholds for early intervention should then be identified to ameliorate cow health and welfare but also minimise unnecessary inspections.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Animals, Cattle, Cattle Diseases, Lameness, Animal, Gait, Reproducibility of Results, Lactation, Dairying, Artificial Intelligence, Female
Divisions: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 04 Mar 2024 16:26
Last Modified: 26 Apr 2024 10:56
DOI: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2024.106091
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3179088