Canine Clitoral Carcinoma: A Clinical, Cytologic, Histopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Study



Verin, Ranieri ORCID: 0000-0001-9366-5682, Cian, Francesco, Stewart, Jennifer, Binanti, Diana, MacNeill, Amy L, Piviani, Martina, Monti, Paola, Baroni, Gianna, Le Calvez, Sophie, Scase, Timothy J
et al (show 1 more authors) (2018) Canine Clitoral Carcinoma: A Clinical, Cytologic, Histopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Study. VETERINARY PATHOLOGY, 55 (4). pp. 501-509.

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Abstract

Vaginal and vulvar tumors are uncommon in dogs. Knowledge of canine primary clitoral neoplasia is restricted to a few case reports, and only carcinomas have been reported. Cytologic and histologic features reported in the literature seem to overlap with those of canine apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASA). Clinical features also recall those of canine AGASA, such as locoregional metastases and hypercalcemia of malignancy (HM). In this study, 6 cases of primary canine clitoral carcinomas (CCCs), with and without HM, were investigated by means of cytology, histopathology, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry for neuroendocrine markers including chromogranin A (CGA), synaptophysin (SYN), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), and S-100. In all 6 tumors, cytologic findings were consistent with malignant epithelial neoplasia of apocrine gland origin. The tumors examined were classified into 3 different histological patterns representing different degrees of differentiation: tubular, solid, and rosette type. Both CGA and SYN were mildly expressed in 2 of 6 tumors, while NSE was consistently expressed in all 6 cases. None of the tumors were S-100 positive. Transmission electron microscopy revealed electron-dense cytoplasmic granules compatible with neuroendocrine granules in all 6 cases. CCCs presented clinicopathologic features resembling AGASAs with neuroendocrine characteristics, and 2 of 6 neoplasms were considered as carcinomas with neuroendocrine differentiation and were positive for 3 neuroendocrine markers. CCCs can often present with HM, and long-term outcome is likely poor. Our study concludes that CCC seems to be a rare tumor, but it might be underestimated because of the overlapping features with AGASA. Further studies should aim to define the true incidence of this disease.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: clitoris, dog, carcinoma, neuroendocrine, vulva, ultrastructure, immunohistochemistry, surgical pathology, external genitalia
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 30 Jan 2018 09:49
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2023 06:42
DOI: 10.1177/0300985818759772
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3017150