Rapid displacement of <i>Cryptosporidium parvum</i> type 1 by type 2 in mixed infections in piglets

Akiyoshi, DE, Mor, S ORCID: 0000-0003-0121-2016 and Tzipori, S
(2003) Rapid displacement of <i>Cryptosporidium parvum</i> type 1 by type 2 in mixed infections in piglets. INFECTION AND IMMUNITY, 71 (10). pp. 5765-5771.

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Genotypes 1 and 2 of Cryptosporidium parvum are the primary types associated with infections in humans, with type 1 being by far the predominant genotype. The frequency of mixed infection with both genotypes in humans is relatively rare, while type 1, which experimentally infects other mammals, has been found to naturally infect almost exclusively humans. One possible explanation for the absence of type 1 in other mammals and the low frequency of mixed infections in humans is the inability of type 1 to compete with type 2 in nature when both occur simultaneously. To investigate this, we challenged gnotobiotic piglets with equal number of oocysts of type 1 and type 2, given either simultaneously or with type 2 given 24 or 48 h after type 1. The genotype of the oocysts excreted in feces and the relative distribution of each of the genotypes throughout the gut at necropsy were determined. Regardless of the time interval between challenges with the two genotypes, type 2 invariably displaced type 1. The rate of displacement was rapid when both genotypes were given simultaneously, after which no traces of type 1 were detected in the feces or in gut sections by PCR. Infection with type 1 24 or 48 h before challenge with type 2, while permitting type 1 to become established, was still rapidly eliminated within 3 days after challenge with type 2. These observations have major implications regarding the relative perpetuation and survival of these two genotypes in mammals.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Cell Line, Animals, Animals, Newborn, Cattle, Sus scrofa, Humans, Cryptosporidium parvum, Cryptosporidiosis, DNA, Protozoan, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Genotype, Time Factors
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 19 Jun 2018 06:34
Last Modified: 15 Mar 2024 14:54
DOI: 10.1128/IAI.71.10.5765-5771.2003
Open Access URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC20110...
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URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3022738