Emerging Resistance to Empiric Antimicrobial Regimens for Pediatric Bloodstream Infections in Malawi (1998–2017)

Iroh Tam, Pui-Ying, Musicha, Patrick, Kawaza, Kondwani, Cornick, Jenifer, Denis, Brigitte, Freyne, Bridget ORCID: 0000-0002-9542-1582, Everett, Dean, Dube, Queen, French, Neil ORCID: 0000-0003-4814-8293, Feasey, Nicholas
et al (show 1 more authors) (2019) Emerging Resistance to Empiric Antimicrobial Regimens for Pediatric Bloodstream Infections in Malawi (1998–2017). Clinical Infectious Diseases, 69 (1). pp. 61-68.

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Background The adequacy of the World Health Organization’s Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) antimicrobial guidelines for the treatment of suspected severe bacterial infections is dependent on a low prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). We describe trends in etiologies and susceptibility patterns of bloodstream infections (BSI) in hospitalized children in Malawi. Methods We determined the change in the population-based incidence of BSI in children admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi (1998–2017). AMR profiles were assessed by the disc diffusion method, and trends over time were evaluated. Results A total 89643 pediatric blood cultures were performed, and 10621 pathogens were included in the analysis. Estimated minimum incidence rates of BSI for those ≤5 years of age fell from a peak of 11.4 per 1000 persons in 2002 to 3.4 per 1000 persons in 2017. Over 2 decades, the resistance of Gram-negative pathogens to all empiric, first-line antimicrobials (ampicillin/penicillin, gentamicin, ceftriaxone) among children ≤5 years increased from 3.4% to 30.2% (P < .001). Among those ≤60 days, AMR to all first-line antimicrobials increased from 7.0% to 67.7% (P < .001). Among children ≤5 years, Klebsiella spp. resistance to all first-line antimicrobial regimens increased from 5.9% to 93.7% (P < .001). Conclusions The incidence of BSI among hospitalized children has decreased substantially over the last 20 years, although gains have been offset by increases in Gram-negative pathogens’ resistance to all empiric first-line antimicrobials. There is an urgent need to address the broader challenge of adapting IMCI guidelines to the local setting in the face of rapidly-expanding AMR in childhood BSI.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, Pediatric, Neonatal, Sepsis, Gram negative
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 21 Jan 2019 11:28
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2023 01:08
DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciy834
Open Access URL: https://academic.oup.com/cid/advance-article/doi/1...
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URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3030736