Esomeprazole and aspirin in Barrett's oesophagus (AspECT): a randomised factorial trial



Jankowski, Janusz AZ, de Caestecker, John, Love, Sharon B, Reilly, Gavin, Watson, Peter, Sanders, Scott, Ang, Yeng, Morris, Danielle, Bhandari, Pradeep, Attwood, Stephen
et al (show 43 more authors) (2018) Esomeprazole and aspirin in Barrett's oesophagus (AspECT): a randomised factorial trial. LANCET, 392 (10145). pp. 400-408.

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Abstract

<h4>Background</h4>Oesophageal adenocarcinoma is the sixth most common cause of cancer death worldwide and Barrett's oesophagus is the biggest risk factor. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of high-dose esomeprazole proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) and aspirin for improving outcomes in patients with Barrett's oesophagus.<h4>Methods</h4>The Aspirin and Esomeprazole Chemoprevention in Barrett's metaplasia Trial had a 2 × 2 factorial design and was done at 84 centres in the UK and one in Canada. Patients with Barrett's oesophagus of 1 cm or more were randomised 1:1:1:1 using a computer-generated schedule held in a central trials unit to receive high-dose (40 mg twice-daily) or low-dose (20 mg once-daily) PPI, with or without aspirin (300 mg per day in the UK, 325 mg per day in Canada) for at least 8 years, in an unblinded manner. Reporting pathologists were masked to treatment allocation. The primary composite endpoint was time to all-cause mortality, oesophageal adenocarcinoma, or high-grade dysplasia, which was analysed with accelerated failure time modelling adjusted for minimisation factors (age, Barrett's oesophagus length, intestinal metaplasia) in all patients in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with EudraCT, number 2004-003836-77.<h4>Findings</h4>Between March 10, 2005, and March 1, 2009, 2557 patients were recruited. 705 patients were assigned to low-dose PPI and no aspirin, 704 to high-dose PPI and no aspirin, 571 to low-dose PPI and aspirin, and 577 to high-dose PPI and aspirin. Median follow-up and treatment duration was 8·9 years (IQR 8·2-9·8), and we collected 20 095 follow-up years and 99·9% of planned data. 313 primary events occurred. High-dose PPI (139 events in 1270 patients) was superior to low-dose PPI (174 events in 1265 patients; time ratio [TR] 1·27, 95% CI 1·01-1·58, p=0·038). Aspirin (127 events in 1138 patients) was not significantly better than no aspirin (154 events in 1142 patients; TR 1·24, 0·98-1·57, p=0·068). If patients using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were censored at the time of first use, aspirin was significantly better than no aspirin (TR 1·29, 1·01-1·66, p=0·043; n=2236). Combining high-dose PPI with aspirin had the strongest effect compared with low-dose PPI without aspirin (TR 1·59, 1·14-2·23, p=0·0068). The numbers needed to treat were 34 for PPI and 43 for aspirin. Only 28 (1%) participants reported study-treatment-related serious adverse events.<h4>Interpretation</h4>High-dose PPI and aspirin chemoprevention therapy, especially in combination, significantly and safely improved outcomes in patients with Barrett's oesophagus.<h4>Funding</h4>Cancer Research UK, AstraZeneca, Wellcome Trust, and Health Technology Assessment.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: AspECT Trial Team, Humans, Barrett Esophagus, Aspirin, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal, Drug Therapy, Combination, Drug Administration Schedule, Adolescent, Adult, Aged, Middle Aged, Female, Male, Proton Pump Inhibitors, Young Adult, Esomeprazole
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 14 May 2019 10:10
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2023 00:46
DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31388-6
Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)31388-6
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URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3041235