Safety and Efficacy of the SNAP 12-hour Acetylcysteine Regimen for the Treatment of Paracetamol Overdose

Pettie, JM, Caparrotta, TM, Hunter, RW, Morrison, EE, Wood, DM, Dargan, PI, Thanacoody, RH, Thomas, SHL, Elamin, MEMO, Francis, B ORCID: 0000-0002-2130-5976
et al (show 4 more authors) (2019) Safety and Efficacy of the SNAP 12-hour Acetylcysteine Regimen for the Treatment of Paracetamol Overdose. EClinicalMedicine, 11. pp. 11-17.

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© 2019 Background: Acetylcysteine (NAC) is effective at preventing liver injury after paracetamol overdose. The Scottish and Newcastle Anti-emetic Pre-treatment for Paracetamol Poisoning (SNAP) Study demonstrated that a 12 h NAC regimen was associated with fewer adverse drug reactions compared with the standard 21 h regimen. Here, we describe the clinical effectiveness of the SNAP NAC regimen. Methods: The SNAP regimen, consisting of intravenous NAC 100 mg/kg over 2 h then 200 mg/kg over 10 h, was introduced to treat all paracetamol overdose patients at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, the Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle and St Thomas' Hospital, London. Patient data were prospectively and systematically collected before and after the change in treatment (total patients N = 3340, 21 h N = 1488, SNAP N = 1852). Health record linkage was used to determine patient outcome after hospital discharge. Findings: There was no difference in liver injury or liver synthetic dysfunction between regimens. Hepatotoxicity (peak ALT > 1000 U/L) occurred in 64 (4.3%) and 67 (3.6%) patients, respectively, in the 21 h and SNAP groups (absolute difference − 0.7%, 95% CI − 2.1 to 0.6). Multivariable logistic regression did not identify treatment regimen as an outcome-associated factor. No patients were readmitted to hospital with, or died from, liver failure within 30 days of discharge. Anti-histamine treatment (for NAC anaphylactoid drug reactions) was prescribed for 163 (11.0%) patients with the 21 h regimen and 37 (2.0%) patients with the SNAP regimen (absolute difference 9.0% (95% CI 7.3 to 10.7)). Interpretation: In clinical use the SNAP regimen has similar efficacy as standard therapy for preventing liver injury and produces fewer adverse reactions.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Acute liver failure, Paracetamol, NAC, Clinical practice, Drug-induced liver injury
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 04 Jun 2019 09:45
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2023 00:41
DOI: 10.1016/j.eclinm.2019.04.005
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