A Bit of Nondeterminism Makes Pushdown Automata Expressive and Succinct

Guha, Shibashis, Jecker, Ismaël, Lehtinen, Karoliina and Zimmermann, Martin ORCID: 0000-0002-8038-2453
(2021) A Bit of Nondeterminism Makes Pushdown Automata Expressive and Succinct. .

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We study the expressiveness and succinctness of history-deterministic pushdown automata (HD-PDA) over finite words, that is, pushdown automata whose nondeterminism can be resolved based on the run constructed so far, but independently of the remainder of the input word. These are also known as good-for-games pushdown automata. We prove that HD-PDA recognise more languages than deterministic PDA (DPDA) but not all context-free languages (CFL). This class is orthogonal to unambiguous CFL. We further show that HD-PDA can be exponentially more succinct than DPDA, while PDA can be double-exponentially more succinct than HD-PDA. We also study HDness in visibly pushdown automata (VPA), which enjoy better closure properties than PDA, and for which we show that deciding HDness is ExpTime-complete. HD-VPA can be exponentially more succinct than deterministic VPA, while VPA can be exponentially more succinct than HD-VPA. Both of these lower bounds are tight. We then compare HD-PDA with PDA for which composition with games is well-behaved, i.e. good-for-games automata. We show that these two notions coincide, but only if we consider potentially infinitely branching games. Finally, we study the complexity of resolving nondeterminism in HD-PDA. Every HDPDA has a positional resolver, a function that resolves nondeterminism and that is only dependant on the current configuration. Pushdown transducers are sufficient to implement the resolvers of HD-VPA, but not those of HD-PDA. HD-PDA with finite-state resolvers are determinisable.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Unspecified)
Uncontrolled Keywords: cs.FL, cs.FL, cs.LO
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Engineering > School of Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Computer Science
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 15 Jul 2021 08:04
Last Modified: 05 Jun 2024 08:13
DOI: 10.4230/LIPIcs.MFCS.2021.53
Open Access URL: https://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2021/1449...
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3130035