Waning of specific antibodies against Delta and Omicron variants five months after a third dose of BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in elderly individuals



Goh, Yun Shan, Rouers, Angeline, Fong, Siew-Wai, Zhuo, Nicole Ziyi, Hor, Pei Xiang, Loh, Chiew Yee, Huang, Yuling, Neo, Vanessa Kexin, Kam, Isaac Kai Jie, Wang, Bei
et al (show 16 more authors) (2022) Waning of specific antibodies against Delta and Omicron variants five months after a third dose of BNT162b2 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in elderly individuals. FRONTIERS IN IMMUNOLOGY, 13. 1031852-.

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Abstract

The emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants, such as the more transmissible Delta and Omicron variants, has raised concerns on efficacy of the COVID-19 vaccines. Here, we examined the waning of antibody responses against different variants following primary and booster vaccination. We found that antibody responses against variants were low following primary vaccination. The antibody response against Omicron was almost non-existent. Efficient boosting of antibody response against all variants, including Omicron, was observed following a third dose. The antibody response against the variants tested was significantly higher at one month following booster vaccination, compared with two months following primary vaccination, for all individuals, including the low antibody responders identified at two months following primary vaccination. The antibody response, for all variants tested, was significantly higher at four months post booster than at five months post primary vaccination, and the proportion of low responders remained low (6-11%). However, there was significant waning of antibody response in more than 95% of individuals at four months, compared to one month following booster. We also observed a robust memory B cell response following booster, which remained higher at four months post booster than prior to booster. However, the memory B cell responses were on the decline for 50% of individuals at four months following booster. Similarly, while the T cell response is sustained, at cohort level, at four months post booster, a substantial proportion of individuals (18.8 - 53.8%) exhibited T cell response at four months post booster that has waned to levels below their corresponding levels before booster. The findings show an efficient induction of immune response against SARS-CoV-2 variants following booster vaccination. However, the induced immunity by the third BNT162b2 vaccine dose was transient. The findings suggest that elderly individuals may require a fourth dose to provide protection against SARS-CoV-2.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, S protein, antibodies, T cells, variant, mRNA vaccine, booster
Divisions: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 31 Jan 2023 10:27
Last Modified: 09 Aug 2023 13:58
DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.1031852
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3167999