Electron affinity of metal oxide thin films of TiO<sub>2</sub>, ZnO, and NiO and their applicability in 28.3 THz rectenna devices



Tekin, SB, Almalki, S, Finch, H, Vezzoli, A, O'Brien, L, Dhanak, VR, Hall, S and Mitrovic, IZ
(2023) Electron affinity of metal oxide thin films of TiO<sub>2</sub>, ZnO, and NiO and their applicability in 28.3 THz rectenna devices. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 134 (8). 084503-.

[thumbnail of Accepted Manuscript-JAP23-AR-01896.pdf] PDF
Accepted Manuscript-JAP23-AR-01896.pdf - Author Accepted Manuscript

Download (1MB) | Preview

Abstract

<jats:p>The holy grail of achieving efficient operation of infrared (IR) rectennas continues to be the realization of a high performance rectifier. In this paper, we have fabricated metal–insulator–metal (MIM) diodes based on TiO2, ZnO, and NiO thin films using shadow mask evaporation, photolithography, and sputtering. The electron affinities of oxides have been measured by a combination of variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as deduction from the extraction of metal/oxide barrier heights of Fowler–Nordheim tunneling plots. Our results confirm a low value for the electron affinity of NiOx of ∼2.1–2.5 eV, which correlates with the high zero-bias dynamic resistance (RD0) of ∼500 kΩ of an associated MIM diode. These values render NiOx to be unsuitable for use in a rectenna device. Better performance has been observed from diodes based on TiO2 and ZnOx films. The best rectification performance was achieved for a Au/2.6 nm ZnOx/Cr diode, scaled down to 1 μm2 device area, showing a zero-bias dynamic resistance of RD0 = 71 kΩ, zero-bias responsivity β0 = 0.28 A/W, and a coupling efficiency of ηc = 2.4 × 10−5% for rectification at 28.3 THz. The main significance of this study is that it employs a methodology whereby key parameters of the MIM stack are derived from physical measurements, which are then used to assist in the fitting of electrical current–voltage data to produce a reliable appraisal of diode performance in an IR rectenna.</jats:p>

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: 40 Engineering, 4018 Nanotechnology
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Engineering > School of Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Computer Science
Faculty of Science and Engineering > School of Physical Sciences
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 08 Sep 2023 14:27
Last Modified: 20 Jun 2024 23:03
DOI: 10.1063/5.0157726
Related URLs:
URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3172651