Elevated Serum Gastrin Is Associated with Melanoma Progression: Putative Role in Increased Migration and Invasion of Melanoma Cells.

Varga, Akos Janos, Nemeth, Istvan Balazs, Kemeny, Lajos, Varga, Janos, Tiszlavicz, Laszlo, Kumar, Dinesh, Dodd, Steven, Simpson, Alec WM, Buknicz, Tunde, Beynon, Rob ORCID: 0000-0003-0857-495X
et al (show 4 more authors) (2023) Elevated Serum Gastrin Is Associated with Melanoma Progression: Putative Role in Increased Migration and Invasion of Melanoma Cells. International journal of molecular sciences, 24 (23). p. 16851.

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Micro-environmental factors, including stromal and immune cells, cytokines, and circulating hormones are well recognized to determine cancer progression. Melanoma cell growth was recently shown to be suppressed by cholecystokinin/gastrin (CCK) receptor antagonists, and our preliminary data suggested that melanoma patients with <i>Helicobacter</i> gastritis (which is associated with elevated serum gastrin) might have an increased risk of cancer progression. Therefore, in the present study, we examined how gastrin may act on melanoma cells. In 89 melanoma patients, we found a statistically significant association between circulating gastrin concentrations and melanoma thickness and metastasis, which are known risk factors of melanoma progression and prognosis. Immunocytochemistry using a validated antibody confirmed weak to moderate CCK2R expression in both primary malignant melanoma cells and the melanoma cell lines SK-MEL-2 and G361. Furthermore, among the 219 tumors in the Skin Cutaneous Melanoma TCGA Pan-Cancer dataset showing gastrin receptor (CCKBR) expression, significantly higher CCKBR mRNA levels were linked to stage III-IV than stage I-II melanomas. In both cell lines, gastrin increased intracellular calcium levels and stimulated cell migration and invasion through mechanisms inhibited by a CCK2 receptor antagonist. Proteomic studies identified increased MMP-2 and reduced TIMP-3 levels in response to gastrin that were likely to contribute to the increased migration of both cell lines. However, the effects of gastrin on tumor cell invasion were relatively weak in the presence of the extracellular matrix. Nevertheless, dermal fibroblasts/myofibroblasts, known also to express CCK2R, increased gastrin-induced cancer cell invasion. Our data suggest that in a subset of melanoma patients, an elevated serum gastrin concentration is a risk factor for melanoma tumor progression, and that gastrin may act on both melanoma and adjacent stromal cells through CCK2 receptors to promote mechanisms of tumor migration and invasion.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Humans, Melanoma, Skin Neoplasms, Gastrins, Receptors, Cholecystokinin, Receptor, Cholecystokinin B, Proteomics
Divisions: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Systems, Molecular and Integrative Biology
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 06 Feb 2024 09:40
Last Modified: 06 Feb 2024 09:40
DOI: 10.3390/ijms242316851
Open Access URL: https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242316851
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URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/3178411