Differential vascular dysfunction in response to diets of differing macronutrient composition: a phenomenonological study



Fatani, Sameer, Pickavance, Lucy C, Sadler, Claire J, Harrold, Joanne A ORCID: 0000-0002-0899-4586, Cassidy, Roslyn, Wilding, John PH ORCID: 0000-0003-2839-8404 and Naderali, Ebrahim K
(2007) Differential vascular dysfunction in response to diets of differing macronutrient composition: a phenomenonological study. NUTRITION & METABOLISM, 4 (1). 15-.

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Abstract

<h4>Background</h4>Vascular dysfunction can develop from consumption of an energy-rich diet, even prior to the onset of obesity. However, the roles played by different dietary components remain uncertain. While attempting to develop models of obesity in a separate study, we observed that two high-energy diets of differing macronutrient compositions affected vascular function differently in overweight rats.<h4>Methods</h4>Male Wistar rats (n = 6/group) were fed diets providing varying percentages of energy from fat and carbohydrate (CHO). For 10 weeks, they were fed either chow, as control diet (10% of energy from fat; 63% from CHO), chow supplemented with chocolate biscuit (30% fat; 56% CHO) or a high-fat diet (45% fat; 35% CHO). Blood concentrations of biochemical markers of obesity were measured, and epididymal fat pads weighed as a measure of adiposity. Mesenteric arteries were dissected and their contractile and relaxant properties analysed myographically. Data were tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA).<h4>Results</h4>Weight gain and plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin and leptin were similar in all groups. However, biscuit-fed animals showed increased food intake (+27%; p < 0.01) and elevated concentrations of TGs and NEFAs (+41% and +17%; both p < 0.05). High-fat-fed animals showed an increase only in NEFAs (+38%; p < 0.01). Arterial vasoconstriction in response to NA and KCl increased only in biscuit-fed rats (both p < 0.01), while vasorelaxation in response to CCh and SNP, but not histamine, was attenuated in both groups (both p < 0.01). Furthermore, whereas the effect of the high-fat diet was most pronounced in endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, the biscuit diet had the greater effect on endothelium-independent vasorelaxation.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Vascular dysfunction resulting from consumption of a high-fat or combined relatively high-fat/high-CHO diet occurs through different physiological processes, which may be attributable to their differing macronutrient compositions. Combining potentially atherogenic macronutrients induces more extensive vascular impairment than that of high-fat alone, and may be attributable to the more marked dyslipidaemia observed with such a diet. Thus, these findings help clarify the role of dietary components in vascular impairment, which has implications for clinical approaches to preventing cardiovascular disease.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: 6 pages (page numbers not for citation purposes). Published: 14 June 2007.
Uncontrolled Keywords: ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION, BODY-FAT, CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE, MONOUNSATURATED FAT, CARBOHYDRATE INTAKE, INSULIN-RESISTANCE, INCREASED RISK, WEIGHT-LOSS, OBESITY, RAT
Subjects: ?? Q1 ??
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Divisions: Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Systems, Molecular and Integrative Biology
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Population Health
Faculty of Health and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 06 Jun 2008 12:16
Last Modified: 16 Dec 2022 02:27
DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-4-15
Publisher's Statement : © 2007 Fatani et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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URI: https://livrepository.liverpool.ac.uk/id/eprint/697