Pharmacodynamics of Isavuconazole for Invasive Mold Disease: Role of Galactomannan for Real-Time Monitoring of Therapeutic Response

Kovanda, LL ORCID: 0000-0002-4493-4652, Kolamunnage-Dona, R ORCID: 0000-0003-3886-6208, Neely, Michael, Maertens, Johan, Misun, Lee and Hope, W ORCID: 0000-0001-6187-878X
(2017) Pharmacodynamics of Isavuconazole for Invasive Mold Disease: Role of Galactomannan for Real-Time Monitoring of Therapeutic Response. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 64 (11). pp. 1557-1563.

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Background. The ability to make early therapeutic decisions when treating invasive aspergillosis using changes in biomarkers as a surrogate for therapeutic response could significantly improve patient outcome. Methods. Cox proportional hazards model and logistic regression were used to correlate early changes in galactomannan index (GMI) to mortality and overall response, respectively, from patients with positive baseline GMI (≥0.5) and serial GMI during treatment from a phase 3 clinical trial for the treatment of invasive mold disease. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis in patients with isavuconazole plasma concentrations was conducted to establish the exposure necessary for GMI negativity at the end of therapy. Results. The study included 158 patients overall and 78 isavuconazole patients in the PK/PD modeling. By day 7, GMI increases of >0.25 units from baseline (3/130 survivors; 9/28 who died) significantly increased the risk of death compared to those with no increase or increases <0.25 (hazard ratio, 9.766; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.356–21.9; P < .0001). For each unit decrease by day 7 from baseline, the odds of successful therapy doubled (odds ratio, 2.154; 95% CI, 1.173–3.955). An area under the concentration-versus-time curve over half-maximal effective concentration (AUC:EC50) of 108.6 is estimated to result in a negative GMI at the end of isavuconazole therapy. Conclusions. Early trends in GMI are highly predictive of patient outcome. GMI increases by day 7 could be considered in context of clinical signs to trigger changes in treatment, once validated. Our data suggest that this improves survival by 10-fold and positive outcome by 3-fold. These data have important implications for individualized therapy for patients and clinical trials.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: aspergillosis, galactomannan, biomarker, isavuconazole, isavuconazonium sulfate
Depositing User: Symplectic Admin
Date Deposited: 07 Apr 2017 08:00
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2023 07:06
DOI: 10.1093/cid/cix198
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